New energy vehicles refer to those vehicles which use unconventional vehicle fuel as power source (or conventional vehicle fuel and new vehicle powerplant) and integrate the advanced technology of vehicle power control and drive, forming advanced technology principle, new technology and new structure. New energy vehicles include four types of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), pure electric vehicles (BEV, including solar vehicles), fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), and other new energy sources (such as supercapacitors, flywheels and other high-efficiency energy storage vehicles). Unconventional vehicle fuels refer to fuels other than gasoline and diesel, such as natural gas (NG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol gasoline (EG), methanol, dimethyl ether, etc.
In the early days of automobile history, there were many alternatives to gasoline or diesel, or some could use gasoline or diesel but not internal combustion engines, but these vehicles were eliminated because of their low cost-effectiveness. In order to meet the needs of environmental protection and oil crisis, it is necessary to reduce or abandon the current mainstream models that burn traditional gasoline or diesel-driven internal combustion engines.
In China, the government stipulates that new energy vehicles refer to three types of pure electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. These three types of vehicles are subsidized in China (expected to be abolished after 2020) and have convenient travel (e.g. Beijing area, no limit for pure electric vehicles, etc.).
New energy vehicles refer to all other energy vehicles except gasoline and diesel engines. It includes fuel cell vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, hydrogen energy powered vehicle and solar energy vehicle. Its emissions are relatively low. According to incomplete statistics, there are more than 4 million liquefied petroleum gas vehicles and more than 1 million natural gas vehicles in the world. In China, new energy vehicles are widely used in public transport in some cities, and some local governments also support private purchase of new energy vehicles (such as Shanghai, Guangzhou, etc.).
And a large part of the new energy vehicles on the market are hybrid electric vehicles, a small part of pure electric vehicles, and more fuel cell electric vehicles used in public transport. Here, new energy vehicles mainly refer to hybrid electric vehicles, pure electric vehicles, fuel cell electric vehicles.
Generally speaking, hybrid power refers to the oil-electric hybrid power, that is, the mixture of fuel (gasoline, diesel, etc.) and electricity.
At present, there are several categories of new energy vehicles in the classification of automobiles and their reference pages.
They are pure electric vehicle, add-on electric vehicle, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and non-plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Pure electric vehicles and extended-range electric vehicles belong to the category of electric vehicles (refers to vehicles equipped with one or more power sources that drive wheels with electric motors, including extended-range electric vehicles). Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and non-plug-in hybrid electric vehicle are hybrid electric vehicles. One of the classifications.
Pure electric vehicle, also known as battery electric vehicle (Electric battery Vehicle), refers to a vehicle powered by an electric motor by a pre-charged accumulator battery, which is supplemented by an external power supply and meets the requirements of road traffic and safety regulations. Because of its smaller impact on the environment than traditional cars, its prospects are widely valued.
Composition of electric vehicles
The composition of electric vehicle includes: electric drive and control system, driving force transmission and other mechanical systems, working devices to complete the established tasks, etc. Electric drive and control system is the core of electric vehicle and the biggest difference from internal combustion engine vehicle. The electric drive and control system is composed of drive motor, power supply and motor speed control device. Other electric vehicles are basically the same as internal combustion engines.
Working Principle: Battery - Current - Power Regulator - Motor - Power Drive System - Driving Vehicle
Performance characteristics of pure electric vehicle
Today’s pure electric vehicles are quite good in many aspects. For sports cars, Tesla Models only takes 3.4 seconds to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h/h. For general RVs, such as Smart ED 0 to 50 km/h, it takes 6.5 seconds. This is mainly attributed to the performance of motors, but when used for heavy-duty purposes, pure electric vehicles are not used much. This may be due to the battery’s performance and cost. Torsion is the strength of an electric motor, so torsion is not a problem in general use.
Because the output of the motor is stable, the control is easier than that of the internal combustion engine, the pure electric vehicle runs smoothly, and the vibration and noise are less; it does not need to shift frequently to ensure sufficient power as the general car does. For example, Tesla Models needs only one shift from static to extreme speed.
Energy conversion efficiency is high. The energy conversion efficiency of fuel cells can be as high as 60 to 80%, which is 2~3 times that of internal combustion engines.
Zero emission, no pollution. The fuel cells are hydrogen and oxygen, and the products are clean water.
Hydrogen fuels are widely available and can be obtained from renewable sources and not from petroleum fuels.
To understand the passive safety performance of electric vehicles, it is necessary to explain the safety standards related to collision of electric vehicles in China. At present, China's electric vehicle collision related safety standards are mainly mandatory regulations and the 18 version of CNCAP two. Compulsory regulations are required for each vehicle to be listed. The 18th Edition of CNCAP is voluntarily applied for testing by the main engine factory or selected by CNCAP management center according to market performance for testing. To speak frankly, it's like classroom teachers asking questions. I believe you have all experienced it when you read. When the teacher asks questions, we can raise our hands to answer them on our own initiative, or maybe the teacher calls the names to answer them. Those who do not raise their hands and are not named have no influence. Similarly, voluntary applications for CNCAP tests of 18 editions or models selected by official agencies are subject to testing, but models that have not been voluntarily applied for and selected will not be affected. At present, the main engine factories of electric vehicles on the market are not active enough and have not been tested by CNCAP management center. Most of them have not evaluated the 18 editions of CNCAP rules. Their safety performance verification is insufficient, and further tests are needed. Why do we say so? This is mainly related to the 18 edition of CNCAP evaluation project. The 18th Edition of CNCAP rules was formally implemented on July 1 this year, which is more stringent than mandatory regulations, and can more systematically and comprehensively reproduce the protection of pedestrians and passengers by vehicles in actual traffic accidents. On the basis of mandatory regulations (full forward, side and rear collisions), it adds the following evaluation items: 40% offset collision of 1.64 km/h: for simulating the overlap rate of vehicles and collisions, the injury situation of passengers in vehicles is about 40%, which is the highest proportion of traffic accidents in China at present; /h's whipping test: it mainly simulated injuries to occupants during the rear end collision. In the accident, the driver and passenger of the collided vehicle will produce whip-like action in the neck under the combined action of collision acceleration and head inertia force. 3. Pedestrian protection evaluation: mainly simulate the head and leg injury of the human body impacting on the front end of the vehicle in traffic accidents.
The first car in the world was built by Carl Benz, and the first one to drive was a woman, Benz's wife, Futa Benz.
Although cars have been patented by men for some time, dealers in Foshan have felt that women are beginning to dominate the car age. With the improvement of women's own economic ability, today's women are naturally more reluctant to be the scenery on the co-driver's seat, and are increasingly becoming a new power of automobile consumption.
Invariable first appeal: beautiful appearance
Apple Green POLO, Golden Pitta (Parametric Deployment Library), Pink Swift (Parametric Deployment Library), Dazzling Purple Yida (Parametric Deployment Library)... Perhaps the most obvious example of women's car-buying characteristics is the beautiful appearance of these models, which were or are still sold out by dealers.
Obviously, a woman's interest in a car depends largely on the first impression. Whether the appearance is good or not is in the first place. This is a habit deduced from fashion and cosmetics, which is difficult to change. Small and exquisite overall shape, beautiful appearance, light body, lively and beautiful, bright color of the smart car, usually women's favorite, which not only reflects the soft and delicate side of women, but also for women in the city's endless stream of cars, bringing a lot of convenience.
According to the survey, 60% of BMW 3 series (parameter configuration gallery) female owners in Foshan and almost 100% of Beetles (parameter configuration gallery) owners are female. Cars are like fashion clothes to women.
Men once despised women's concept of buying cars, saying that women did not understand the inherent charm of automobiles. "What about this? For women, cars are not only a vehicle for walking, but also a product of self-personality and aesthetic taste." Miss Wang, who recently purchased the beetle, retorted.
"Half of the women car owners in real life are like this. Sensibility is their first choice. Buying a car is like buying clothes. So in the marketing world, there is the "7 second law", that is to say, consumers will decide their purchase intention in 7 seconds. In this short period of 7 seconds, the effect of color factor on buying behavior accounts for 67%, and automobile marketing is no exception. A dealer told reporters that automobile manufacturers are working hard on the appearance of the car, striving to make the most impression on consumers when they see the product in the first second, thus bringing a full range of super-pulling effect to brand marketing.
Compared with men, women do not pay much attention to the factors of car performance when choosing to buy a car. Women who think that the engine performance is the most important factor are much less concerned about the style of interior decoration, the quality of configuration and the quietness of the car.
Family buying, women’s demands dominate.
Last year, when BMW 1 was listed in Foshan, Mr. Huang of Nanhai went to BMW store for a test drive. He looked at the model and tried it again. He also knew the configuration and price of the model. However, when the salesman asked Mr. Huang if he ordered a car, Mr. Huang said that he had to take his wife to the store another day to see it. Mrs. Huang agreed to pay for the car. .
Chang’an Ford dealers have observed the phenomenon of family car purchasing. They found that Foshan family car purchasing is usually decided by the female patron in most cases by the male first doing his homework, choosing three or four brands, then on-the-spot investigation by the family.
The head of sales of Golden Treasure in Foshan told reporters that most of the female car owners who came to buy cars in their stores chose MIMI, BMW 3 series and Z4, of which BMW 3 series was the majority. Today, unlike in the past, many female car owners buy their own cars. In the past, the need for male family or friends to accompany them is increasingly being replaced by the independence of women to buy their own cars.
Because of this, in the face of new trends in the car market, automobile manufacturers began to adjust their business strategies and turn more attention to female consumers. Car manufacturers are investing heavily in television, radio and magazines that are dominated by women.
It is understood that Mitsubishi Motor Company of Japan has set up a special women’s evaluation team, composed of 50 women, so that they stand in the perspective of women to evaluate the car being developed.
In the era of independence, women buy cars more decisively.
"In the past, less than 10% of the consumers who bought cars in 4S stores were women owners, and most of them were accompanied by men. The head of Foshan Junan Toyota told reporters that in recent years, the proportion of female car owners has risen rapidly. Their shop roughly estimated that nearly three of the car owners have become women.
The person in charge said that in the past, buying a car for women or giving a car to women had become a dominant symbol of male success. However, with the increasing independence of the economy and personality of Post-70s and post-80s females, car-buying is becoming an active consumption behavior of modern females, and self-driving is becoming a major trend for independent females to buy cars.
Dealers also noted that women's buying options gradually tended to have two levels of differentiation.
"The polarization of women's car purchases is obvious, either on the low-end of the family car, or simply take a personalized line, choose luxury cars, SUVs and sports cars." Foshan East Ben store owner told reporters.
Last year, on March 8th Festival, Chang'an Suzuki launched a pink swift. For the first time, the target consumer group was clearly defined as female consumers. As a market test, Chang'an Suzuki carefully set the pink swift as a limited edition. Only 500 swifts were sold nationwide. Head of Foshan Lutong store
In the past hundred years, automotive design technology has also experienced the stage from experiential design to design based on scientific experiments and technical analysis. In the mid-1960s, new methods such as computer aided design (CAD) came into being after introducing computers into the design, which gradually made the design semi-automatic and automated.
Empirical design is a traditional design method, which is based on the experience data of existing products and uses some empirical formulas with empirical constants or safety factors to design and calculate. Due to the lack of precise design data and scientific calculation methods, the products designed are either too heavy or not reliable. The development of a new type of vehicle often goes through two or more cycles, such as design-trial-manufacture-test-improvement design-trial-manufacture-test. After modifying the drawing repeatedly, the design can be finalized after the design is completed, the design cycle is long, the quality is poor, and the consumption is large.
With the development and perfection of testing technology, new testing technology and special testing equipment are introduced in the process of automobile design to carry out scientific experiments, and to test the structure, performance and strength and life of parts and components from various aspects. At the same time, modern mathematical and physical analysis methods are widely used to carry out comprehensive technical analysis and Research on products, assemblies and components, which makes automobile design develop to a stage based on scientific experiments and technical analysis. The emergence of computer and its popularization and application in engineering design make the automobile design technology develop rapidly and the design process change completely. Optimal selection and matching of automotive structural parameters and performance parameters, strength calculation and life prediction of spare parts, simulation calculation or simulation analysis of relevant aspects of products are all carried out on the computer. This method of product design using computer and its external equipment is collectively called Computer Aided Design (CAD).
In the whole process of product development, the innate quality of the product depends on the design. The cost of the product, including raw materials, forging, use, maintenance and other aspects, that is, 70% of the generalized cost is determined by the design stage. Therefore, the modification of the design plan should be carried out as far as possible in the early stage of product development, so as to make the product design a success and avoid the huge waste caused by changing the design in the later stage of product development.
On January 16, 2018, the eagerly awaited new national standard of electric bicycle was formally promulgated, and 3C certification will be implemented simultaneously, which strengthens the management of electric bicycles, especially those exceeding the national standard. Nearly 20 years later, this new policy has not only caused a huge impact on the electric vehicle industry, but also stirred up a thousand waves in the motorcycle industry.
In recent years, the new electric vehicle industry, which is powered by new energy, has developed vigorously. In the wave of new energy, the market of electric motorcycles has grown rapidly, and the boundary between electric bicycles and electric motorcycles has gradually blurred. Then, under the new national standard of electric vehicle, how to divide electric motorcycle and electric bicycle?
(1) the impact of the new national standard on the development of electric bicycles and electric motorcycles.
In January 16, 2018, four ministries and commissions formally issued the "national electric bicycle safety technical specification". This new national standard, which attracts much attention, has comprehensively improved the safety performance of electric bicycles. Some of the original provisions have been forcibly changed to full-text mandatory. Technical indicators such as tamper-proof, fire-proof, flame-retardant and charger protection have been added, and technical indicators such as speed limit, vehicle quality and bicycle riding capacity have been adjusted and improved.
The cylinder block is composed of cylinder head, cylinder block and crankcase. The cylinder head is made of aluminium alloy and has heat sinks. The new four-stroke motorcycle engine adopts top valve, chain drive and top camshaft structure. Cylinder block materials are mostly bimetal (wear-resistant cast iron cylinder liner cast aluminium radiator) in order to obtain better heat dissipation effect. Some motorcycles adopt wear-resistant cast iron cylinders, such as Changjiang 750 and Jialing JH70, and some small mopeds, such as Yuhe YH50Q small displacement (50 cubic centimeters) engines, adopt the structure of 0.15mm hard chromium coating on the inner wall of aluminium alloy cylinder. The crankcase is made of aluminum alloy die-casting, which is composed of two boxes. Some motorcycles have cushioning blocks between the heat dissipation signs to suppress the noise emitted by the heat sink.
crank connecting rod
The crankshaft of motorcycle engine is composed of left half crankshaft, right half crankshaft and crank pin. A ball bearing is mounted on the spindle neck of the left and right axle to support the crankshaft on the crankcase. The two ends of the crankshaft are equipped with flywheels, magneto and clutch driving gear respectively. The connecting rod is an integral structure, the big head is a circular ring, and the needle roller bearing and the crank pin are assembled into a crank connecting rod group. When installing the piston ring in a two-stroke engine, attention should be paid to aligning the opening of the piston ring with the positioning pin in the piston ring groove so as to prevent the piston ring from rotating in the ring groove, resulting in air leakage and scratching the intake and exhaust ports on the cylinder liner.
Carburetor is an important part of motorcycle fuel supply system, located between air filter and engine intake. Generally, motorcycle engines are equipped with parallel suction inlet air flow direction, plunger throttle valve and float chamber carburetor. The carburetor structure is mainly composed of two parts: the float chamber and the mixing chamber. The float chamber is located below the carburetor. The oil pipe opens the tank through the throttle switch. Through the needle valve on the float, the oil level in the float chamber is kept at a certain height, so that the oil supply pressure is stable. The function of the mixing chamber is to mix gasoline vaporization and atomization with air, so that the engine can get the required mixture under various loads and rotational speeds. It is composed of festival arts valves, fuel injection needles, fuel injection pipes and gas and oil pipelines.
Motorcycle throttle handle is rotated to drive throttle wire rope to control throttle valve and injection needle moving up and down, and to change intake throat section and fuel supply, so as to meet the needs of mixed gas at different speed and load. An idle speed adjusting screw is installed on one side of the carburetor to adjust idle speed. Idle stop screws are used to prevent throttle valve rotation and adjust the minimum opening of the throttle valve. The upper part of the throttle valve has a return spring, and the throttle valve is closed when the throttle handle is not rotated.
In some two-stroke motorcycle engines, a one-way reed valve is installed between the carburetor and the cylinder block to avoid reverse injection at low speed. The reed is made of thin spring steel sheet. The valve seat is aluminium alloy. There is an air inlet on the valve seat. The plane of the air inlet and the contact parts of the reed are pasted with a layer of oil rubber to reduce the impact and vibration between the reed and the valve seat. When the crankcase is sucked in, a certain degree of vacuum is formed in the crankcase. Under the action of pressure difference, the reed valve opens the mixture and enters the crankcase. When the piston goes down and the ventilation port is not opened, the pressure in the crankcase rises, and the reed valve closes, which prevents the mixture from flowing back, thus improving the power and economy of the engine at low speed.
The four stroke engine adopts the combination of splashing lubrication and pressure lubrication. Two-stroke engines usually adopt the mixed lubrication method of mixing a certain proportion of QB gasoline engine oil into gasoline. However, no matter what the engine working conditions are, the lubricating oil is supplied in a fixed proportion, which increases the consumption of lubricating oil, incomplete combustion, more carbon deposits and exhaust pollution. The new generation of two-stroke engines are equipped with separate lubrication tanks and oil pumps. Oil pump generally adopts reciprocating plunger variable fuel supply pump, driven by crankshaft gear through worm wheel and worm. Oil supply is changed with engine speed through the linkage of throttle handle, control cable and carburetor throttle valve. Oil supply is more at high speed, less at low speed, and more oil can be saved compared with mixed lubrication. Oil is blown into tiny oil mist by high-speed mixture, which supplies lubricating parts, reduces oil entering combustion chamber, combusts completely and reduces carbon deposit and exhaust pollution.
The speedboat is the "sprint champion" in the warship, with a maximum speed of 40 - 60 knots, known as "light cavalry at sea". Speedboats are classified according to their weaponry, including torpedo boats, missile boats and missile torpedo boats. Although the speed boat is small, its power is not small, and its function is very great. For large and medium-sized enemy ships invading the offshore area, torpedo and missile boats can attack in a separate formation, or they can cooperate with other surface vessels to destroy large and medium-sized enemy ships. We can also send speedboats to attack enemy transport fleets and disrupt the enemy's maritime transport lines. The speed of the speedboat is fast, the hull is small, it can be hidden, and it can be effectively and suddenly.
Attack the enemy's base and berthing ground. In the shallow water channel, narrow sea area, reef island area and other places, speedboats can be used for minefields.
The most powerful speedboat is missile boat, which inherits the advantages of torpedo boat and plays an important role in naval warfare. However, compared with large and medium-sized warships, their self-defense ability is weak, and their anti-wind and wave performance is poor, so they can only fight in the offshore.
Modern speedboats widely use missile weapons, advanced miniaturized electronic equipment, high-power steam turbine, hydrofoil and air cushion technology, and are developing towards missileization, large-scale, high-speed, electronic and other directions. In the future naval battle, the speedboat will play a greater role, and the speedboat will give great military help.
The power supply provides electric energy for the driving motor of the electric motorcycle. The motor converts the electric energy of the power supply into mechanical energy and drives the wheels and working devices directly through the transmission device. Nowadays, lead-acid batteries are the most widely used power source in electric vehicles. With the development of electric vehicle technology, lead-acid batteries are gradually replaced by other batteries because of their low specific energy, slow charging speed and short life. The application of new power supply has opened up broad prospects for the development of electric vehicles.
The function of driving motor is to convert the power of power supply into mechanical energy, and drive wheels and working devices directly by means of transmission device or direct drive device. DC series motor is widely used in electric vehicles nowadays. This motor has "soft" mechanical characteristics, which is very consistent with the driving characteristics of the vehicle. However, due to the existence of commutation sparks, low specific power, low efficiency and large maintenance workload, DC motor will gradually be replaced by brushless DC motor (BCDM), switched reluctance motor (SRM) and AC asynchronous motor with the development of motor technology and motor control technology.
Motor speed control device
The motor speed control device is set for the speed change and direction change of the electric vehicle. Its function is to control the voltage or current of the motor and complete the control of the driving torque and rotation direction of the motor.
In previous electric vehicles, the speed regulation of DC motor was realized by series resistance or by changing the turns of magnetic field coil of motor. Nowadays, it is seldom used because of its stepped speed regulation, additional energy consumption or complex structure of motor. Thyristor chopper speed regulation is widely used in electric vehicles nowadays. The stepless speed regulation of motor can be realized by uniformly changing the terminal voltage of motor and controlling the current of motor. In the continuous development of electronic power technology, it is gradually replaced by other power transistors (into GTO, MOSFET, BTR and IGBT) chopper speed control devices. From the point of view of technology development, with the application of new drive motors, it will become an inevitable trend that the speed control of electric vehicles will be transformed into the application of DC inverters.
In the control of rotating direction conversion of driving motor, DC motor relies on contactor to change the current direction of armature or magnetic field to realize the rotating direction conversion of motor, which makes Confucius Harvard circuit complex and less reliable. When AC asynchronous motor is used to drive, the change of motor steering only needs to change the phase sequence of three-phase current of magnetic field, which can simplify the control circuit. In addition, the use of AC motor and its frequency conversion speed control technology makes the braking energy recovery control of electric vehicles more convenient and the control circuit simpler.
The function of the driving device is to change the driving moment of the motor through the wheel into the force on the ground, driving the wheel to travel. It is the same as other cars, consisting of wheels, tires and suspension.
Like other vehicles, the brake system of electric vehicles is designed for decelerating or stopping vehicles, usually consisting of brakes and their control devices. In electric vehicles, there are usually electromagnetic brake devices, which can use the control circuit to drive the motor to realize the motor's power generation operation, so that the energy during deceleration braking can be converted into the current charging the battery, and thus can be recycled.
The working device is specially designed for industrial electric vehicles to fulfill the operation requirements, such as lifting device, door frame, fork and so on. The lifting of the fork and the tilt of the gantry are usually accomplished by a hydraulic system driven by an electric motor.
"Safety Requirements for Electric Motorcycles and Electric Mopeds" mainly specifies the electrical, mechanical safety, signs, warnings and test methods of electric motorcycles and electric mopeds. These include: the heat generated by electrical appliances should not cause burning, material deterioration or personnel burns; power batteries and power circuit systems should be equipped with protective devices; electric motorcycles should be started through a key switch, etc.
Electric two wheeled motorcycle: electric driven; two wheel motorcycles with the highest speed of more than 50km/h.
Electric tricycle: Electrically driven tricycle with a maximum design speed of more than 50 km/h and a complete vehicle quality of less than 400 kg.
Electric two-wheeled mopeds: two-wheeled motorcycles driven by electric power, with one of the following conditions: the maximum design speed is greater than 20 km/h and not more than 50 km/h; the overall vehicle quality is greater than 40 kg and the maximum design speed is not more than 50 km/h.
Electric three-wheeled moped: Electrically driven, with a maximum design speed of not more than 50 km/h and a complete vehicle quality of not more than 50 km/h
ECU controller is the "brain" of the whole electronic control system. It is composed of hardware and software. It supplies power for 24V and has built-in atmospheric pressure sensor.
The installation of ECU controller should be far away from the high temperature area of engine and vehicle, and collision and fall are strictly prohibited during use and maintenance.
When disassembling the controller plug-in, if you find it difficult to unplug or plug-in, do not force it. First check whether the locking device is pulled in place, whether foreign objects enter the controller plug-in, otherwise the controller or plug-in will be damaged.
Warning: the ECU controller is installed in the cockpit, which must be waterproof, oil proof and shockproof.
Users are absolutely not allowed to enter water or oil at the connector interface during car cleaning, in order to avoid controller failure or even burnout failure.
Do not plugged ECU controller connector.
Control wire harness
The control wiring harness is the pivot connecting sensors, controllers and actuators, as well as vehicle signals and power supplies.
Special attention: once the crankshaft speed sensor, camshaft speed sensor, acceleration pedal sensor, intake pressure sensor, intake temperature sensor, cooling water temperature sensor, controller or wiring harness are found to be damaged, it should be replaced as a whole by Shanyuchai maintenance personnel. Simple docking or maintenance on the vehicle should not be allowed, and at the same time it should be replaced. Send Yuchai maintenance service center.
Timing signal assembly method
First, ensure that the engine's first cylinder piston is at the TDC, the timing pointer is aligned to the "0" scale. Install the flywheel locating pin hole with the crankshaft locating pin.
When the crankshaft speed sensor is installed, the air gap between the end face of the sensor and the signal hole of the flywheel is required to be 1.0 soil 0.5.
When installing the gear train, the timing marks of the gear train are corresponded one by one; when installing the camshaft signal plate, attention should be paid to the marking on the signal plate to tighten the fixed bolt of the signal plate at the center of the installation hole of the camshaft signal sensor in the quasi-gear room. The distance between the sensing end and the timing panel is 1: 0.5